rods binding together the ends of a seat, perhaps a sella castrensis. It is quite clear that these decorated pieces were intended to be welded to longer metal rods, and this has been done in the piece which has been omitted from the illustration. On one end a metal rod is affixed measuring from the central disc to its end a length of 8 inches, so that, if the opposite end was treated in the same way, the whole would have a length of 16 inches, which would probably mean that the seat was some 8 inches in length.

Such a seat, found in a Roman cemetery at Nymwegen, is to be seen in the Museum of the Canisius College there. The framework, which is of iron, resembles a modern camp stool, except that the ends, instead of simply forming a St. Andrew's cross, are curved gracefully, the lower and the upper half each describing a semi-circle. The two ends are tied together by five rods; two join the feet together, two the supports for the seat, and one ties together the ends at the point of intersection. The rods themselves measure about 14 inches in length, and each rod is ornamented by three disc-like mouldings of brass placed at intervals upon it. The feet of the seat terminate in small shoes or sandals of bronze, which possibly give us a clue to the use of three objects of brass which were found with the iron rods in Pit XVI. Two of them are illustrated in Plate LIV., Figs. 2 and 3. They very probably formed part of the feet. It is on a seat of this kind that Augustus is placed in the reliefs on the silver cups from Boscoreale now in the collection of Baron Edmond de Rothschild,[1] and on the columns of both Trajan and Marcus Aurelius we may see the Emperor seated upon it. Doubtless the Newstead seat formed part of the camp equipment of some officer of high rank.

Plate LXIV., Fig. 6, also from Pit XVI, is likewise incomplete. It consists of a rectangular iron plate, 5 inches in length, overlaid with brass. At either end of it there projects a rod, the two rods being of unequal length, while on either side of the plate are ornamental projections resembling a fleur-de-lys in shape. These last have also been plated with brass. The use of this object remains uncertain. Plate LXIV., Fig. 3, came from Pit XVI. It is a chain, the full length of which is 19½ inches. The upper part consists of a single heavy chain fastened to a triple loop. From this depend two smaller chains. It was probably used for hanging a pot over a camp fire. The iron mountings shown in Figs. 7 and 8 of the same plate are possibly

1 Héron de Vil1efosse, Le Trésor de Boscoreale, Monuments Piot., tome v. 1899, pl. 31 and 32.