could not be traced satisfactorily. Most of the stone-work of the outer walls had entirely disappeared, so that the outlines could only be traced from the foundation trenches. It was plain that before the construction of the ditch some enlargement had taken place. Walls of later construction than the building itself (M, N) lay to the south of the tepidarium, occupying the space between the apses on either side. These walls rested on river cobbles.

The Latrine

Somewhat further south was a latrine (O). This adjunct to the building had unfortunately been damaged in the draining operations of 1904, when a drain had been cut in a westerly direction through the floor, removing one or more troughs and some water channelling. It is possible that the latrine may have been open to the sky. Certainly no walls enclosing it could be made out, except the back wall on the south, which had formed the south wall of the latrine pit. At the east end, this wall was one foot nine inches in height. The pit, which ran east and west, was sixteen inches wide and twenty inches deep. At the west end it discharged into the main drain, which ran in a south-westerly direction. The floor of the latrine was paved with large slabs of stone. Round three sides of the floor—the east, south, and west—ran a stone water channel of no great depth, with stone troughs at intervals upon it. Two of the latter remained in situ. A third, which was taken from the building during the draining operations, no doubt belonged to the same series. In the illustration given in Plate XIV., Fig. 1, the latrine is viewed from the east end. On the left the cobble base of the rampart may be seen. The latrine pit and the remains of the water channeling may be noted. The water had probably been led in by clay tiles with neatly made faucet joints. A line of these was found running from the neighbourhood of the west gate of the fort to the baths, but the actual source of the water supply was not ascertained. Having passed along the open channel cut in the flag stones and through the troughs, the water was discharged into the drain running to the south. This type of latrine, with its water channel in the floor, was also in use at Housesteads. There the stone troughs were no longer in situ at the time of the excavation, but two of them, which were found in the paved gangway of the building, had, without doubt, fulfilled the same purpose as the corresponding objects at Newstead. The second of these,[1] with its outlet at one corner, is exactly like the trough in the Newstead water

1 Bosanquet, Excavations at Housesteads, p. 252, fig. 25.