gate was placed about the centre of the outer of the two ditches. Both were cleared out for some length, and produced fragments of pottery which appeared to belong entirely to the later period. The south annexe measured about fourteen and a half acres. It was defended by a single ditch which did not seem to be connected with the ditches of the early fort. No part of it was cleared out. This annexe had two gates—an early gate which had been covered by an overlapping branch of the ditch, and a later gate further to the east where this means of defence was not employed. The east annexe measured about 20.7 acres. It, too, was surrounded by a single ditch, and three gateways were noted, one on the north, another on the east, and a third—a small postern gate—on the south-east.

The Use of the Annexes

To understand the use of the annexes we must turn again to the larger legionary strongholds. A legion stationed in such a fortress as Novaesium or Lambaesis was settled there for a number of years, so that there grew up outside of the line of the main defences small settlements which might ultimately develop into towns, as did Cologne and York. In these settlements were to be found the time-expired soldiers and the traders who followed in the wake of the army. Nor was it only for the legionary fortresses that such annexes were required. In Arrian's description of the fort at the mouth of the Phasis on the Black Sea, from which we have already quoted, we have a reference to one of these settlements: 'And since it was desirable to render the harbour secure for the ships and to protect the settlement outside the fort, which was occupied by time-expired soldiers and others who were traders, I decided to cut a ditch from the double ditch which surrounds the fort and to carry it as far as the river. This ditch will include the naval station and the houses outside the wall.'

In the small permanent forts dotted along the German Limes we find many traces of these civil settlements and of houses beyond the wall. At Pfünz, at the Saalburg and at Heddernheim, for instance, there were a variety of buildings lying outside the limits of the camp. At Heddernheim the fort proper occupied one end of a large enclosure bounded by a wall with fortified gateways.[1] At Pfünz a number of buildings, canabae, probably small wine shops, as well as dwellings and one or two temples, were scattered along the margin of the highway.[2] At the Saalburg, where possibly this

1 Mittheilungen über Römische Funde in Heddernheim, Heft ii. Taf. iv.

2 Der Obergermanisch-Raetische Limes, Lief. 14, Kastell Pfünz.