THE skulls of the Canidae from the Roman military camps at Melrose and Barhill are thirteen in number. One is of a fox; the rest are skulls of the dog. The latter may be said to represent five varieties or breeds of the domestic dog. No wolves' skulls were found. For purposes of description, the dogs' skulls have been arranged in the following groups:

Group A contains five skulls. They bear a considerable likeness to the skull of a cross between a bull-terrier and a greyhound; and with the skull of the average Airedale terrier they agree in many points, but differ from it in having the sagittal crest better developed. The crest though well formed is not high, so that the temporalis muscle could not have been excessive. The teeth are large and, as is the case in most of the skulls, are worn down to an extent such as is rarely, if ever) seen in the modern domestic dog. At the same time the cranial sutures are quite distinct, so that the skulls could not have belonged to dogs of any very great age. The same peculiarity is to be noticed in most of the skulls under consideration.

Two skulls have been isolated to form Group B, of which one only is fully developed. The other is that of a young dog, probably under twelve months old. That there is a marked distinction between these two skulls and those of the former group is quite evident. The total length of the skull is considerably less. The stephanic index in both young and old skulls is fairly great, indicating a deficiency in the growth of the temporalis muscle. In this respect the skulls are not unlike those of the spaniel, fox-terrier, Scotch and Irish terriers of to-day. The breadth of the cranium proportionate to its length is greater than in the skulls of group A.

Group C contains two skulls which are considerably larger than any of the others. Unfortunately, one of them is so broken as to be of little value, since it is impossible to obtain satisfactory or accurate measurements. The other, practically intact, is somewhat similar in form to the skulls of group A, hut is built on a larger scale. The roof of the cranium, moreover, has a greater curvature. Contrasted with skulls of modern domestic dogs it differs probably least from the retriever 5; but the face is somewhat broader, actually and relatively to its length. It is also broader across the incisive or premaxillary bones.