a number of crossing experiments with Shetland, Jersey, and other breeds, with a view to giving the ancient black race a chance of reappearing. I selected Shetland and Jersey cattle) because they appeared to differ but little from certain modern Swiss breeds believed to be descended from the small ox of the Lake-dwellers. By crossing a mouse-dun Shetland heifer having up-turned horns with a fawn-coloured Jersey bull, a red calf was obtained, which eventually grew into a dark-brown cow, decidedly larger than either of its parents. A second mouse-dun Shetland cow was put to a Jersey bull of a dark-fawn colour. The result was a red bull calf, which also eventually reached a good size, and assumed a dark-brown colour. In course of time the two crosses were interbred. I expected that the result of this union would be a calf that would eventually, in make and colour, agree with the small mouse-dun Shetland ancestors, or with the small fawn-coloured Jersey ancestors, or take after the large mulberry coloured cross-bred parents. As a matter of fact, the calf; red to start with, developed into a dark-brown cow, decidedly smaller than either of the parents or grand-parents.

This second cross has horns of the Celtic short-horn type (Plate XCVII., Fig. 4) and a broad, reddish dorsal band. In this small cow (she only measures 11.2 hands at the withers) we have probably a fairly accurate restoration of the Celtic ox of the first century. This 'restored' Celtic short-horn has produced two red calves to a red short-horn bull. One of the calves died when only a few days old; the other, now a yearling, is of a black brown colour like the dam.

The fact that all the cross-bred calves were red at birth suggests that our domestic cattle included amongst their ancestors a red variety, allied perhaps to one of the modern Oriental races.

Some of the skulls from Newstead belonged to animals very decidedly larger than the Celtic ox. Judging by the horn cores, some of the large skulls probably belonged to the Chillingham or Chartley type, while others probably belonged to crosses between native and imported cattle.

In addition to equine bones and bones of oxen, sheep, goats and dogs, the remains of the following animals were found during the excavations of the Roman Fort at Newstead, viz.

Pig[1] (Sus scrofa).Roe Deer (Capreolus caprea).
Elk[2] (Alces machlis).Fox (Canis vulpes).
Red Deer[3] (Cervus elaphus).Badger[4] (Meles taxus).

1 Some of the pig bones belong to domestic, some to wild animals-three small pigs found together may have been captured during a hunting expedition.

2 As remains of elk have been found in four of the Border counties, and also at several Romano-British villages in England, it is not surprising that Alces is included in the Newstead list.

3 Some of the red deer antlers are decidedly larger than the antlers of the modern stags.

4 The remains of the badger consist of a nearly complete skull, the scapulae and innominate bones, ribs and limb-bones, of a nearly mature animal.