Ovis aries studeri for the large-horned Neolithic sheep would be Ovis orientalis celticus. Some of the mooret-coloured short-tailed Shetland sheep in their skull and limbs very closely agree with the Soay race, hence it may be assumed that the Mouflon has contributed to the making of the small semi-wild short-tailed Shetland breed.

Since Neolithic times 'four-horned' sheep (i.e. sheep with from three to eight horns) have existed in Europe. As the purer bred 'four-horned' sheep in their limbs and tail agree with Soay sheep they also may include the Mouflon amongst their ancestors.

That long-tailed breeds are descended from short-tailed ancestors allied to one or more of the living wild species is suggested by the fact that in black-faced herds short-tailed lambs occasionally make their appearance. If the short tail is due to reversion, it is conceivable that some of the breeds with spiral horns are in part descended from ancestors allied to the Argali (Ovis ammon). Further inquiries and experiments may even indicate that the long tail of the improved Occidental breeds is a useless inheritance from fat-tailed Oriental ancestors.

Goats were apparently even less common than sheep in the Newstead Fort. The remains found belonged to a race evidently allied to the Ibex (Capra ibex), once common on the Swiss Alps.


A very large number of bones of oxen were found in the Newstead pits, wells, and ditches. The majority of the bones from the older deposits belong to the Celtic ox (the so-called Bos taurus longifrons), but many of the bones belong to cross-bred animals decidedly larger than the Celtic short-horn. The Urus (Bos taurus primigenius), once common in Britain, is not represented among the bones from Newstead.

If, as naturalists generally assume, the Urus (Auroch of the Germans) was never domesticated in Britain, and if, as Prof. Hughes believes, the only ox in Britain when the Romans came was the small Celtic short-horn (Bos taurus longifrons), it follows that all the modern British breeds of cattle (the Chillingham and other 'wild' cattle included) are descended from domesticated races or breeds brought from the Continent before, during, or after the Roman occupation.

It might be said that as the wild Urus and the Celtic short-horn were contemporaries in Scotland, they may have interbred. There is, however, no evidence of this from Newstead, or, as far as I can ascertain, from any other Roman or Romano-British settlement.

When and where Bos taurus primigenius was first tamed, and from which wild races the small Celtic short-horn is descended will probably never be known.

Many of the oxen bones belong to quite young animals which had doubtless served as food; others belonged to heavily built animals probably used for transport. Several of the small skulls have all the characteristics of the Celtic short-horn of Continental