THE following constitutes a report based upon the examination of material submitted from time to time by Mr. James Curle, of Priorwood, Melrose, during the excavation of the site of the Roman Military Station at Newstead, Melrose.

The nature of the material which was sent to the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, for investigation was of two kinds:

(1) Samples of the deposits from the various pits and trenches opened during the work of excavation;

(2) Definite articles of interest such as implement shafts.

The samples of earths from the pits gave numerous twigs of trees, pieces of bark, branches, chips of wood, and seeds, which had found their way into the pits at the time the latter were being filled with refuse at the station. From the pits and trenches, and mixed with the vegetable debris, came many of the important finds of Roman implements and other articles, and one is justified in assuming that the vegetable remains from the same levels represent species of plants which were contemporaneous with the occupation of the site. In the case of the woods associated with tools as handles, one has, of course, no direct evidence as to their origin.

The general character of the various samples of earths from the pits and trenches, with the vegetable remains identified in each sample, is given in Table I.

Table II gives the results of my identification of the separate objects, such as tool handles.

In Table III I give a summary of the plant remains, arranged systematically according to the various natural orders to which the identified species belong.


I. Examination of Samples of Deposits from the Pits and Trenches

(For detailed descriptions of the deposits see Table I)

The plant remains identified among the samples are of three kinds:

(1) Specimens of woods and twigs identified by microscopic examination of their wood structure;