enable a fair idea to be formed of the manner in which the whole had been built. An illustration of these remains are given in Plate VI., Fig. 1.[1]

The wall, which was seven feet seven inches thick, lay on a base of cobble stones nine inches deep and about eight feet six inches wide. In front of this the foundation projected for nearly a foot. Above it were two scarcement courses of rough blocks of red sandstone. On these was laid a course of long hammer-dressed stones four and a half inches high. In the portion exposed one of these stones had a length of three feet ten inches, the other of three feet seven inches. They were in turn surmounted by a course of hammer-dressed blocks eleven inches high, and from a foot to eighteen inches in length. The latter had a width of about sixteen inches, while the centre of the wall was filled in with rough blocks. In the portion described the inner face was better preserved than the outer, which had lost its upper course. It was quite evident that the defence was a real wall, not merely the revêtement of a rampart. Two stones lying on the line of the berm at the south-west corner, eight inches thick, with the typical diamond broaching, possibly indicated the width of the upper courses and the character of dressing which may have been employed upon the exposed face.

The Rampart

Immediately in the rear of the wall was the rampart, which had been about thirty-eight feet in width at the base. It was formed of fine yellow clay, containing few if any stones. Its inner margin was supported on a kerb, which had a base of eighteen inches and was two feet in height. On the side next the rampart the kerb was almost vertical, while on the opposite side its three courses were stepped. The actual structure of the rampart itself seemed to differ slightly in the sections taken, but in most of them there was noted a band of cobble stones eight feet in width, with straight margins, lying seventeen feet from the outer margin of~the kerb, and thirteen feet from the inner side of the wall. A somewhat similar rampart base was observed at Birrens,[2] and again at Ardoch.[3] Inside the rampart, and directly behind it, was a road running round the margin.

The Reducing Wall

Allusion has already been made to a reconstruction, which resulted in considerably reducing the size of the later fort. This was effected by building across it from north to south a wall which may be conveniently distinguished as 'the reducing wall.' It cut off an area, lying on the west side, equal to about one-third of the whole

1 The footrule shown in this and succeeding Plates is two feet long.

2 Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, vol. xxx. p. 17.

3 Ibid. vol. xxxii. p. 439.