Fig. 33 (Plate LXXXVII.) is of the type known as a 'knee fibula,' which is not uncommon in this country, and which also appears on the Continent. It came from the Retentura, where it was lying above the filled-up ditch of the early fort. It probably belongs to the end rather than to the beginning of the second century. In Germany specimens occur at Heddernheim,[1] at the Saalburg,[2] and at Osterburken.[3] Professor Schumacher, in describing the last of these, dates the type to about the year A.D. 200. He mentions that it is found at Regensburg with coins dating from A.D. 180 to 210. It should therefore be assigned to the close of the occupation of Newstead.

Penannular Brooches

Examples of the penannular brooch were found at all levels. A well-preserved specimen of brass came from the ditch of the early fort (Plate LXXXVIII., Fig. 17). Like the majority of these brooches, it is quite small, measuring little more than an inch in diameter, while the ends are bulbous. The pin, which is hinged by being simply wound round the brooch, describes a considerable curve in crossing it. A brooch of the same type, rather smaller in size, was taken out of Pit LXXX, which belongs to the later period. As the British Museum possesses a very similar brooch discovered at Elton in Derbyshire along with a coin of Constantine, it is probable that the type remained in use for a very long period. Among the specimens found at Newstead we may, however, note the beginnings of the evolution which in time produced the great Celtic fibulae with expanded ends covered with intricate decoration. One brooch, which came from the Barracks of the Praetentura, shows terminals of trumpet shape. Another from the same area has the terminal ends flattened out.

A brooch of silver (Plate LXXXVIII., Fig. 13) was picked up on the sloping ground above the Tweed, a few feet to the east of Pit LXV. The metal is rectangular in section, and the sharp edges are notched to suggest plaited wire. The terminals, one of which is awanting, are of somewhat unusual, perhaps of phallic, shape.[4] The pin works loosely on a flattened loop. Looped to the brooch is a small ring formed of a single strand of fine wire. It is very probable that such brooches were worn in pairs, and that the loop was intended for the passage of the chain which held the two

1 Mittheilungen über römische Funde in Heddernheim, Heft ii. Taf. iii. Fig. 52.

2 Jacobi, Das Römerkastell Saalburg, Taf. 50, Fig. 3.

3 Der Obergermanisch-Raetische Limes, Lief. 2, 'Kastell Osterburken,' Taf. vi. Fig. 9.

4 An analogous type may be seen at the Saalburg. Jacobi, Op. cit. Taf. li. Fig. 3.