enamel treatment in both forms should be noted. In the S-shaped brooch (a) the coloured material is laid on in large masses, while down the stem of the fibula (b) the enamel is inserted in squares, there being no cutting of elaborate cloisons such as we see in Plate LXXXVI., Figs. 19 and 20. The same method may be noted in a brooch from near Duntocher,[1] and a similar brooch is one of the few enamelled objects in the large collection from Vindonissa preserved at Königsfelden, near Brugg. In Germany, where enamel begins to appear in the Flavian period, a like simplicity of treatment may be observed in a pair of brooches found at Xanten with a coin of Titus.[2] One of the best examples of an early type of such enamelled fibulae is the specimen from Kingsholm, Gloucester, now in the British Museum,[3] in which the enamel is arranged in rectangular masses of red and yellow.

Both the Lamberton Moor and the Kingsholm fibulae resemble Plate LXXXV., Fig. 3, in having the end of the wire that forms the spring brought back over the upper side of the head, where it is kept in place by a loop fastened to the head with a stud. In the Newstead collection there are a number of brooches which are more or less direct descendants of this Lamberton Moor fibula. But before dealing with these it will be convenient to examine another group. Figs. 8 to 16 (Plates LXXXV. and LXXXVI.) all belong to the same family. It is probable that in some form this variety was in use during the whole period of occupation. About ten specimens in all were found. These brooches represent a British type more common in the North and West of England than in the East. A few examples have been found on the Rhine, but so unfamiliar are they there that one which came from Heddernheim is classed by Professor Riese as perhaps of African origin. The characteristic trumpet-shaped ending and also the rudiments of the decorative collar on the bow are to be seen in a fibula from Aylesford, which is probably as old as the first century B.C.[4] The collar itself is, of course, a survival from an early brooch of the safety-pin class, in which one end of the wire after forming the catch for the pin is brought back and fastened by winding it round the body. Mr. Arthur Evans has traced the evolution of this type through a brooch of Pannonian origin.[5] One of the Newstead specimens (Fig. 8) came from the ditch of the early fort, and

1 Stuart, Caledonia Romana, 2nd ed. plate viii. fig. 6. p. 295.

2 Houben and Fiedler, Denkmäler von Castra Vetera, Taf. xvii. Figs. 4 and 5.

3 Illustrated by Mr. Arthur Evans in Archaeologia, vol. lv. p. 153, fig 7.

4 Archaeologia, vol. lii. p. 351.

5 Archaeologia, vol. lv. p. 153