it was associated, and the position of the pit (LVIII) in which it was found, this piece of brass must belong to the early period.

When we compare the little group in Plate LXXV. with finds from purely British sites such as the Stanwick hoard, we see that the designs have become more solid and heavy, and that the craftsmen have lost something of their inventiveness. Between the art which produced these Celtic horse-trappings and that which displays itself in the buckles illustrated on Plate LXXVI. (Figs. 1, 2, 3, 17 and 18), there is no doubt a relationship. The two must have had a common origin. But, while the horse-trappings have features which are probably peculiar to Britain, such scroll-work as is found in Plate LXXVI., Fig. 2—the Trompetenmuster of German archaeologists—is by no means uncommon in the Limes forts, where it occurs both on brooches and on belt mountings. Good examples may be seen at the Saalburg and also among the smaller trinkets from Zugmantel.[1] At Zugmantel, too, we have buckles exactly like Figs. 1 and 3. At Newstead probably none of these buckles are earlier than the Antonine period.

The Stanwick hoard contains a piece of harness-mounting which evidently served the same purpose as the Newstead example shown in Plate LXXV., Fig. 1. It consists of four parts-two rings with the characteristic expansions and two rectangular pieces. In Fig. 1 the square ends are preserved, but the rings with their projecting flanges have developed into solid petals with raised centres. The bridle-bit from Rise represents an intermediate stage in the process of evolution. Here we have the petal-shaped motive employed as a decoration of the terminal rings. But each petal is composed of two parts. To begin with, there is a ring which is expanded to a point at one side, a raised line testifying to the tradition of the meeting of the two stem-like ends just as in the ornament of Plate LXXV., Fig. 6. Again, a circular filling, decorated with enamel, has been introduced. Between this filling and the expanded side of the ring there remains an open space, showing how the enamelled filling was inserted into the earlier design. The Stanwick hoard was found among extensive earthworks, enclosing nearly 1000 acres. Near it were discovered large iron hoops that were doubtless the tyres of chariot wheels. But no Roman coins or pottery appear to have been turned up within the earthworks, though these lie at no great distance from the great Roman road called Leeming Lane. As far as is known, the Middlebie find was not associated with Roman relics either. Probably,

1 Der Obergermanisch-Raetische Limes, Lief. 32, 'Kastell Zugmantel,' Taf. x. Figs. 20, 21, 24, 25.