fragment of the neck of a large jar found in Pit LXXVI (Plate LII., Fig. 21), APRILIS HEL. . . In the first line we have probably the owner's name; in the second, the letters HEL, followed by a symbol or device, possibly formed part of some word indicating the contents of the vessel.

The stamp Q G A (Fig. 21) was found impressed twice on the side of part of a large jar, or perhaps an urn, of black ware found in Pit LXXXVI, probably of the later period; it is the only example of a maker's stamp which came to light on such vessels.


The bottom of the pits very commonly contained fragments of large amphorae. Pieces from at least seven such vessels were found in the pit in the Principia (No. I). When complete, an amphora of this sort stood about 2 feet 6 inches high, with wide bulging sides and rounded bottom. The neck was comparatively narrow—about 4 inches—and attached to it were two strong handles, upon one of which the maker's stamp was sometimes impressed. Such amphorae were doubtless in use during all of the various periods of occupation. Fragments came from the early ditch, and were, indeed, met with at every level. Heavy and clumsy though they must have been, it is apparent that these great vessels were often brought from a distance. They were carried over the Empire filled with oil, wine and other products of the south. Their number at Newstead is itself almost sufficient to prove that wheeled transport must have been employed for supply purposes even during the Agricolan period.

One of the handles from Newstead has incised upon it the letters VIN (Plate LII, Fig. 17), standing perhaps for vinum. The head of an amphora found at VINDONISSA bears the inscription THUNNI, showing that it once held pickled tunnies, while another inscribed OLIVA NIGR EX. DE. FR, was evidently a vessel for olive oil.[1] These examples enable us to realise the usual nature of their contents. Many came from Spain and from Southern Gaul. In Rome the huge artificial mound which rises beside the Tiber, known as the Monte Testaccio, where vessels used to discharge their cargo, is very largely composed of the fragments of similar vessels. The stamps found there date from about 140 B.C. to 250 A.D., and they show that the amphorae came from Baetica, Gallia Narbonensis and Mauretania. A Spanish amphora discovered near Bonn is inscribed with the name of C·CONSI·CARIOI·ET·FILIORUM, no doubt a firm who exported their products to the north.[2] In the remarkable series of

1 Eckinger, Töpferstempel und Aehnliches der Sammlung der Gesellschaft 'Pro Vindonissa,' p. 3.

2 Dressel, 'Eine Amphora aus Spanien mit lateinischen Inschriften,' Bonner Jahrbücher., Heft xcv. p. 66.