frieze is defined by rows of small dots, while here and there, as though to suggest a woodland background to the chase, there are introduced long sinuous stems, terminating at one end in a leaf or bud and at the other in a returning curve. South Annexe: surface find.

Fragments of Castor ware were not uncommon at Newstead. Pieces representing some eight or ten such vessels were noted. All of them with one exception were black on the surface. A single piece of brown colour came from Block XIII. The decoration of most of the pieces appeared to consist of animal forms. One fragment from the inner ditches of the West Annexe, however, showed phallic emblems. A small piece occurred practically on the Roman surface-level, above the early pit, No. XVI. But no pieces were found in any of the pits themselves or in association with the early types of pottery. On the other hand, examples were procured in the inner ditches of the West Annexe and in the inner ditch of the East Annexe, in all of which the Terra Sigillata appears to be exclusively Antonine. We must therefore assign the Newstead specimens to the second century.

The name Castor ware has been given to this class of pottery from Castor on the Nen near Peterborough,—the site of the ancient DUROBRIVAE,—where there have been discovered kilns with many remains of vessels in process of manufacture. Figure 30
It is, however, probable that it originally came to Britain from the Rhine. It is common in the museums along the Rhine, and is generally believed to have been largely made at Cologne in the second century. The earlier stages of its characteristic ornament are to be seen at Xanten early in the first century—where the larger urns are decorated with long, pointed leaves in barbotine on a hard grey ware. The band of decoration has an edging of raised dots. A cup found in 1895 in the Münstergasse, Mainz, shows the same pointed leaves. It dates from the Claudian period. The same form of ornament also occurs at Hofheim, and is common on the early cups in the Kam Collection at Nymwegen. It is just this leafy decoration which, both in Germany and in Britain, is employed for the background of the vessels with animal forms. In these it seems to represent the survival of