north gate of Caesar's lines round Alesia.[1] Similarly, the earthen fort of Hofheim,[2] irregularly nine-sided, was occupied from about A.D. 40 to 60, and Waldmössingen,[3] irregularly four-sided, likewise dates from the first century.

Defences of the Early Fort

The early fort at Newstead covers, with its defences, an area of 11.97 acres. It was protected by an earthen rampart and ditches. The sections cut through the line of this rampart gave as a rule little information as to its character. For the most part, it doubtless consisted of the earth from the ditch piled up and beaten into a hard mass. This, however, had been thrown back again, when the later fort was built.

Figure 1

Only on the west front, where probably the ground was softer, was more satisfactory evidence forthcoming. There the sections made towards the south-west corner showed under the later rampart a system of construction which appeared to belong to the earlier one. At a depth of six feet from the modern surface a band of paving five and a half feet wide was found lying on the edge of the inner ditch. It was composed of blocks of red

1 Napoleon III., Histoire de Jules César, Atlas, pl. xxviii.

2 Ritterling, Das frührömische Lager bei Hofheim, p. 23.

3 Der Obergermanisch-Raetische Limes, Lief. 6, Kastell Waldmössingen.