early fort, while a complete and uninjured one came from Pit XIV. The specimen from the ditch, which is partially restored, stands 2½ inches high, and has a band of decoration 1½ inches wide running round the sides. In each alternate panel is a human figure; but the execution is poor, and the design does not admit of any interpretation. Fragments were also found in Pits LIX and LXIV. The type belongs to the first century, and appears to be the product of Lezoux. In Germany such pots are found in the latter part of the Flavian period, but they do not occur in Antonine and later cemeteries.[1]

Apart from these small vessels, the whole of the decorated fragments belong to bowls of the three shapes,—the carinated bowl (Dragendorff, Type 29), Plate XXXIX., Fig. 3, the cylindrical bowl (Dragendorff, Type 30), Plate XXXIX., Fig. 9, and the ordinary hemispherical bowl (Dragendorff, Type 37), of which two specimens are given in Plate XL., Figs. 13 and 14.

Of these the carinated bowl is the earliest, being derived directly from the krater of the Arretine potters. At Hofheim, with the exception of a single fragment of the hemispherical type, the decorated bowls used by the garrison were all either of this shape or of cylindrical form. The hemispherical bowl had scarcely yet made its appearance in Germany, although it probably began to come into use towards the close of the Hofheim occupation. It is found at Pompeii, destroyed in A.D. 79, and appears gradually to have everywhere supplanted the earlier shapes. Before the Antonine period the carinated. bowl had disappeared. At Newstead fragments of no fewer than thirty bowls of the carinated type were found. Most of them came from the ditch of the early fort, but portions also occurred in the overlapping ditch before the West Gate, as well as in the outer ditches of the West Annexe and in the great ditch of the second and later periods. It is probable that all of these belong to the last quarter of the first century. The peculiar shape of the carinated bowl dictated the method of its decoration. The surface of the bowl was divided horizontally into two parallel zones, each covered with a distinct band of ornament, the two zones being separated from each other by a wreath or slightly raised moulding. The ornamentation was moulded as in the manufacture of the Arretine ware. When the bowl was withdrawn from the mould, the everted rim was added,—the line of junction is always clearly marked on the interior. On the everted rim we find almost invariably a roughening of the surface caused by

1 Koenen, op. cit. p.90, Taf. xiii. Fig. 12.