the Newstead helmets the distinction of the cheek-pieces has disappeared, and the mask is formed of a single piece of metal.

Mountings on the Head-Piece

Returning to the head-piece, we may note that it is provided with a number of attachments. At the back of the neck, just at the spring of the projecting rim, is a small bronze loop. A somewhat larger loop is fastened to the central hair knot, while on the left side is a tube-like socket of bronze, and on the right a triangular projecting stud. Two bronze loops in the very front, at the highest point, were doubtless employed to keep the visor-mask in position. Of the remaining attachments the ring at the back of the neck was perhaps used with one of the others to sling the helmet. The tube-like object and also the central loop were apparently for plumes. The plume, or crista, appears on various monuments; worn transversely, it was a distinguishing mark of the centurion. As a bunch of feathers on the top of the helmet, it can be seen on the gravestone of the legionary C. VALERIUS CRISPUS, at Wiesbaden, or, in a more exaggerated form, on the monument of the standard-bearer FLAVINUS of the ALA PETRIANA at Hexham—a monument which in the opinion of Professor Haverfield may belong to an early period in the occupation of North Britain. That the helmet had been intended for actual use is obvious, not only from the attachments described above, but also from the fact that there were remains of thick padding in the inside of the head-piece. The padding appeared to have been composed of wool, and to have been fastened to the metal by some resinous substance, which became sticky when hot water was applied. Traces of similar padding were found adhering to the mask.[1]

Visor-Mask from the Baths

Even more complete is the specimen of a visor-mask which came from Pit LVII at the Baths (Plate XXX.). It is made of brass, and weighs 1½ lbs. avoirdupois. Like the iron mask, it represents a beardless face with a nose slightly aquiline. The hair is elaborately braided and curled over the temples, a few loose locks falling down in front of the ears. The lower edge of the metal, which is three mm. thick, is turned back to prevent chafing. Some distance below each of the ears a hole has been bored to receive a fastening for attaching the visor to the head-piece. On the upper edge, where the metal is somewhat thinner, there are signs of repair; a copper plate 4½ inches by 2¼ inches has been riveted to the back, and in this a hole about 3¼ inches square has been cut to give

1 On the back of a mask found at Hellingen, near Luxemburg, traces were recognised of a resinous substance probably applied for the same purpose. Nordiske Fortidsminder, ii. p. 42.