in his left hand, while with his right he urges his team onward with a whip. The animals rear with their paws thrown forward, producing a sense of motion and of the strain of the heavy car behind them. The car itself is boat-shaped and is set upon two low wheels, with the figure of the driver perched upon the top of it. Behind it a large pointed leaf, doubtless intended for a palm, projects into the design. Above this is a cone-like object which has a similar object corresponding to it on the other side of the helmet, in front of the leopards. These represent the metae or goals. On the upper part of the crown, behind the peak, is a second winged figure, floating in the air (Plate XXVI., Fig. 3). In the right hand this second figure holds what appears to be a piece of floating drapery but may possibly be intended for a palm branch, while with the left it grasps the cords attached to the harness of the leopards. In the Roman Art of the first century it is not uncommon to find Cupids represented engaged in some handicraft, as in the well-known frescoes of the house of the Vettii at Pompeii, or personifying one of the greater gods. Here a Cupid plays the part of the Indian Bacchus, urging on his leopard car while Victory flying before guides him past the goal. The modelling of the figures is coarse, but the design is well spaced and the general result effective. On the rim of the helmet at the hack a punctured inscription can he distinctly traced. It appears to consist of eight letters.

Figure 15


A Cavalry Helmet

The first four are somewhat doubtful; the last four, TGES, seem quite plain. It is possible that the formula of the inscription is a soldier's name, followed by T, standing for Turmae (= 'of the troop'), and the name in the genitive case of the troop-commander.[1] The helmet is certainly of a shape worn by cavalry soldiers. The same high-peaked form is to be seen on the monuments of horsemen preserved at Cologne—Marcus Sacrilus of the Norician Ala, serving in the troop of Paterclus, and T. Flavius Bassus of the Norician Ala, of the troop of Fabius Pudens (TVR·FABI·PVDENTIS), while the inscription presents a close analogy to the letters punctured on the bronze

1 Cf. Kastell Osterburcken, p. 31, small metal plate with punctured inscription, T·QVARTI·AGRAPTI; also Kastell Pfünz, plates inscribed, T·FLAVI·VICTORIS·CV: Taf. ix. Fig. 4; and T·FLAVI·ALPIN[I], Taf. ix. Fig. 2.