holes passed thin leather thongs, by which the scales were laced on to a leather tunic or apron as shown in the accompanying figure.[1] Many of the scales were still fastened together when found, the largest number thus attached in any one case being fifteen. The right side of the upper scale always overlaps the left side of the scale below it, so that the two pairs of holes on the edges are brought exactly opposite one another. All trace of leather had disappeared. In addition to the find just described a single scale of the same type came from the Baths.

Remains of another type of scale armour were discovered in the floor of the chamber situated at the north-west corner of the Principia. Unfortunately, here also the pieces were too small to enable the cuirass of which they had formed part to be reconstructed. Altogether there were more than one hundred fragments (Plate XXIII.). These consisted for the most part of thin plates of brass from one inch to one inch and three-sixteenths in width, slightly curved, and having a thickness of two mm. The longest piece was about three and a half inches in length. In several instances it was clear that the fragment had formed the extreme end of the band to which it belonged. In such cases it was noted that the outer margin formed an acute angle with the lower edge, but that the sharp corner was blunted in the same manner as were the corresponding parts of heavier iron bands from Carnuntum. On the concave side of the bands near the upper edge are rivets. Upon several of these there are still to be seen adhering pieces of the leather backing to which they have been attached. At the end of each band near the edge a round hole has been bored; as none of these holes were found with rivets in them, it is possible that they were used for the insertion of a cord to draw the coat together. It is quite evident from the oxydisation of the metal that when the armour was left where it was ultimately discovered, the bands were overlapping. The curve of some of the pieces suggests that they were intended to protect the shoulders and arms. Others may well have covered the body. About half a dozen pieces, the largest of which measures four inches by three and seven-sixteenths inches, may have belonged to the breastplate.

Scale armour came from the East. It was in use as early as the fourth century B.C. in Southern Russia, where the great tumuli dating from this period have yielded not only bronze scales covering a leather cuirass, but also

1 This illustration of the method of lacing the scale on to the leather backing is taken from Thibetan scale armour, which probably preserves the ancient system.