appears also in the column of Marcus Aurelius. The second variety, lorica squamata or scale armour, is worn on the Trajan column only by the archers and by the Dacians, but it is more common on the column of Marcus. Lastly there was the lorica hamata or chain mail.

Lorica Segmentata at Carnuntum

No specimen of the first of these kinds seems to have been found, or at least preserved, prior to 1899, when a number of fragments were discovered at Carnuntum. With the aid of the sculptures of the Trajan column, Colonel von Groller, who described the find, was able to reconstruct the original.[1] It appears to have consisted of a breastplate formed of two curved pieces of iron, with a similar protection for the back. No entire specimen of any of the four pieces was included, but from numerous fragments which retained their bronze mountings, von Groller came to the conclusion that the plates on the back had been hinged, while those protecting the breast had been fastened by straps and buckles. Below the breastplate and backplate there were worn from five to seven bands of thin iron encircling the body and coming down to the hips. These appear to have been from two to two and a half inches wide. They slightly overlapped and were fastened together by bronze rivets which probably served at the same time to attach them to a leather backing beneath. Like the outer plates, the bands seem to have been hinged at the back, and to have each been provided in front with two hooks, one on either side, through which they were laced together with a cord or leather thong. Similarly there were fastened on each shoulder from three to five curved iron bands of the same breadth and thickness as those round the waist, and also fastened to leather by means of bronze rivets. The whole formed a light strong protection not too rigid to prevent a man working in it.

Lorica Segmentata at Newstead

A set of iron pieces found at Newstead in the pit in the Principia illustrates this type. The largest plate measures eight and a half inches wide and five and a half inches high (Plate XXII.). The metal is about a sixteenth of an inch thick and was curved to fit the body. It had evidently formed part of the breastplate, being in fact the lower portion of the half protecting the right side. On the left margin the metal is curved and slightly turned back to prevent the edge chafing the arm. Along the lower side are two rectangular slits, each five-eighths of an inch by one quarter of an inch, surrounded by a mounting of brass three-eighths of an inch wide, fastened to the iron by studs. On the right the

1 Von Groller, 'Römische Waffen,' Der Römische Limes in Österreich, Heft ii. p. 84.