tepidarium, from which access was obtained to the double-apsed chamber (D) which served as the caldarium. The recess opposite to the door of this apartment (E) was probably occupied by the cisterns of cold, tepid, and hot water, such heat as was required being supplied from a furnace placed in the projecting apartment (F) beyond.

Welzheim East Fort

A last example may be cited, this time from the east fort at Welzheim on the German Limes.[1] Here, within the fort itself, we find a little bath-house. The room at the east end is the apodyterium, with the cold bath in the apse. The central room doubtless formed the tepidarium, while the double-apsed chamber at the west end was the caldarium. Beyond the last named, at the point where the greatest heat would be required, was the praefurnium or stoke-room. The buildings we have described probably represent the minimum of accommodation required for a public bath. Most of those found on the outskirts of the Limes forts are much larger and contain a considerable number of additional rooms.

The Baths at Newstead

Turning to the buildings in the west annexe at Newstead, we may note that the whole forms an irregular block, more or less rectangular in form, and some 310 feet in length. This block was roughly divided into two halves by a ditch, one of the inner or later series of ditches round the annexe having been cut through it in a northerly direction. The half which lay to the west contained the foundations of a large rectangular structure, which lay near the surface. Very little of it remained beyond the cobble foundation of the walls. There was no trace of hypocausts. The relics it yielded were few in number—one or two small fragments of early Terra Sigillata, a first brass coin and a denarius of Domitian. The condition of matters in the eastern half of the block was entirely different. On this side the foundations were covered with debris, showing abundant signs of occupation. In the blackened soil from the hypocausts lay bricks, pieces of roofing-tiles, fragments of plaster, and portions of the cement of the floors, with here and there fragments of pottery, while the walls themselves bore abundant signs of alteration. Gradually, as the surface debris was removed, it became evident that in the centre of the area were the foundations of a comparatively small bath building which, from its position and the method employed in laying its foundation, had evidently formed the nucleus round which the later building had gathered. The walls were not lying upon river cobbles, but upon a concrete foundation

1 Der Obergermanisch-Raetische Limes, Lief. 21, Kastell We1zheim, plate iv. fig. 4.