it may be taken for granted that up to the end of the first century the horses harnessed to the British war-chariots,

Figure 56Figure 57
Metacarpal (½ nat. size) of a 12.2 hands slender-limbed horse of the 'plateau' or F. agilis type. The total length is 7.5 times the width at middle of shaft.
Metacarpal (½ nat, size) of a 12.3 hands coarse-limbed horse of the 'forest' or E. robustus broad (Plate XCV., Fig. 1), type. The length is 5.5 times the width of shaft.
like the horses of the Sigynnae so graphically described by Herodotus, belonged to the fine-limbed Celtic race or to a blend of the 'Celtic' and 'forest' types.

In addition to 'Celtic' and 'forest' ponies under 12 hands at the withers, there were in Newstead slender-limbed and coarse-limbed ponies between 12 and 13 hands. The skull of a 12.2 hands slender-limbed New-stead pony is represented in Plate XCV., Fig. 2 and Plate XCVI., Fig. 1, and Fig. 56 represents one of the slender metacarpals. From the size of the cranium, the dimensions of the narrow, tapering and only slightly deflected face, and from the slenderness of the limbs, it is evident that this pony was built on the lines of the smaller kinds of modern Arabs. Further, the relatively large cranium indicates that it was probably as intelligent and docile as Arabs are.

It may be here mentioned that the members of the Equidae family differ mainly in the form and relations of the face, in the size of the metacarpals (cannon bones), and in the teeth. In the 'forest ' type, e.g., the face is short and dished, and nearly in a line with the cranium (Plate XCVI, Fig. 2), the frontal index is over 60, the first premolar is absent, and the grinding surface of the internal pillar of the last premolar and of the first molar is at least half the length of the crown (Fig. 58), while the length of the metacarpal (Fig. 57) is about 5.5 times the width at the centre of the shaft. In the 'plateau' type, on the other hand, the face is narrow (Plate XCV., Fig. 2) and tapering, and deflected (Plate XCVI., Fig. 1) to form an angle of about 80 with the cranium, the frontal index is 54 to 56, the first premolar is present, and the internal